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Turkey in focus

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World Coal,

In the second of The World Coal Association’s (WCA) snapshot series exploring coal’s role in countries across the globe, the WCA takes a look at Turkey – a transcontinental country with around 82 million people and a rapidly expanding economy.

Key energy facts

  • Turkey is the 18th largest energy consumer in the world.
  • According to the IEA, the country’s total primary energy supply (TPES) is 31% oil, 28.1% coal, 28.1% natural gas, 4.2% hydro, 6.3% geothermal, 2.3% biofuels and waste.
  • Fossil fuels account for over 87% of the country’s energy mix.

Electricity outlook

  • Last year, Turkey’s electricity generation by source was 36.8% coal, 29.8% natural gas and 32.9% renewables.
  • Coal was the largest single source for power generation.

Coal capacity and forecasts

  • Turkey is the biggest user of coal-fired power among countries in the Middle East, with the capacity of existing plants estimated to be 18.5 GW.
  • Coal demand in Turkey is projected to rise at an average annual rate of 3.3% to 2023. Coal production is also projected to increase from 22 megatonnes of coal equivalent to 28 megatonnes of coal equivalent through to 2023.

Climate policies and environmental issues

  • Although its energy needs are mostly met by fossil fuels, Turkey accounts for only 0.83% of global emissions.
  • Emissions per capita have historically been much lower than EU and OECD average levels.

In its INDC, Turkey pledged to reduce emissions by up to 21% by 2030 and has identified a role for high efficiency low emission coal technologies to achieve this.

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